An Operating System (OS) is a Software that acts as an interface between Computer Hardware components and the user. In this article lets see in detail What is Operating System and its Type, Operating System Definition, Functions of Operating system with example.
What is Operating System in a Computer
An operating system (OS) is a set of programs that control the execution of application programs and act as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. OS is software that manages the computer hardware as well as providing an environment for application programs to run.
An operating system controls use of a computer system’s resources such as CPUs, memory, and I/O devices to meet computational requirements of its users
What is Operating System and its Type
Operating System Definition
An operating system can also be commonly defined as “a program running at all times on the computer (usually called the kernel), with all other being application programs”.
An operating system is a type of system software that manages and controls the resources and computing capability of a computer or a computer network, and also provides users a logical interface for accessing the physical computer to execute applications
The Objectives of OS are:
- To make the computer system convenient and easy to use for the user.
- To use the computer hardware in an efficient way.
- To execute user programs and make solving user problems easier
Functions of Operating system
Following are the Functions of Operating system:
- Implementing user interface.
- Sharing HW among users.
- Allowing users to share data among themselves.
- Preventing users from interfering with one another.
- Scheduling resource among users.
- Facilitating I/O operations.
- Recovering from errors.
- Accounting for resource storage.
- Facilitating parallel operations.
- Organizing data for secure and rapid access.
- Handling network communications.
Types of Operating System of Computer
The main categories of modern OS may be classified into three groups which are distinguished by the nature of interaction that takes place between the computer and the user:
1. Batch system
- In this type of OS, users submit jobs on regular schedule (e.g. daily, weekly, monthly) to a central place where the user of such system did not interact directly with computer system. To speed up the processing, jobs with similar needs were batched together and also were run through the computer as a group.
- Thus, the programmer would leave the programs with the operator. The output from each job would send to the appropriate programmer. The major task of this type was to transfer control automatically from one job to the next.
Disadvantages of Batch System
- Turnaround time can be large from user standpoint.
- Difficult to debug program.
- This type of OS provides on-line communication between the user and the system, the user gives his instructions directly and also receives intermediate response, and therefore it called interactive system. The time sharing system allows many user simultaneously share the computer system.
- The CPU is multiplexed rapidly among several programs, which are kept in memory and also on disk. A program swapped in and out of memory to the disk. Time sharing system reduces the CPU ideal time. The disadvantage is more Complex.
3.Real time operating system
- Real Time System is characterized by supplying immediate response. It guarantees that critical tasks complete on time. This type must have a preknown maximum time limit for each of the functions to be performed on the computer.
- Real-time systems are used when there are rigid time requirements on the operation of a processor or the flow of data and real-time systems can be used as a control device in a dedicated application. The airline reservation system is an example of this type.
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